Installing the wallet

What’s the difference between the browser extension and the desktop app?
Send and receive STX
Browser extension
Desktop app
Send and receive standardized tokens and NFTs
Connect to apps and sign their transactions
Participate in Stacking (in pool or by yourself)
Mine fungible tokens (STX excluded)
Mint and purchase NFTs
Ledger support
Manage multiple Stacks accounts / addresses
View asset balances
View transaction history
View Secret Key
View BNS username per account
Protect usage with password
Change networks for development and testing
What’s the difference between the browser extension and the desktop app?


What is the Hiro Wallet?

The Hiro Wallet is a cryptocurrency wallet for managing your STX tokens.

Generally speaking, cryptocurrency wallets enable the sending and receiving of cryptocurrency quantities. Unlike physical wallets for carrying cash, cryptocurrency wallets don’t contain tokens directly inside of them; they merely provide a mechanism for managing them on a blockchain using credentials.

The Hiro Wallet specifically empowers you to manage your STX tokens on the Stacks blockchain, as those tokens are associated with a single publicly-known Stacks address and a single privately-held “Secret Key” (otherwise known as a “seed” or “mnemonic” phrase), which serves as your sole credential.

Your Stacks address is akin to a bank account number, in that it’s known and shared publicly so others can send STX tokens to you.

Your Secret Key is akin to a password; it should be kept completely private and used only to authenticate with trusted software like the Hiro Wallet so you can send STX to others and manage your own holdings. Unlike a traditional password, no one can ever reset your Secret Key should it get lost. It’s absolutely vital that you secure your Secret Key since its lost will entail the lost of all associated STX tokens irreparably.

The Secret Key consists of 24 words separated by spaces. The words, spaces and their positions in the sequence are all critically important. Be sure to record them exactly as presented by the Hiro Wallet.

When sending STX from the Hiro Wallet, the software digitally signs a token transfer from your address to another then broadcasts it to the Stacks network. After the network has received and validated this transaction, tokens will be moved from your address to the specified destination address. The transaction will be permanently and irreversibly recorded on the Stacks blockchain.

Using the Hiro Wallet, you can:

  • Generate a new STX address with associated Secret Key
  • Send STX from your STX address
  • Receive STX to your STX address
  • Transact within the Stacks ecosystem
  • View the balance for your address and associated details
  • Review the transaction history associated with your address
  • Pay for fees associated with sending STX in STX
  • Participate in Stacking for the chance to earn BTC as paid out to a separate BTC wallet
  • Optionally authenticate with a Ledger hardware device

Using the Hiro Wallet with a hardware wallet device raises the level of security by keeping your Secret Key away from your desktop computer at all times during initial authentication and transaction signing.

How do I install and run the Hiro Wallet?

Follow these instructions to install the Hiro Wallet for Desktop:

  1. Download for MacOS, Windows or Linux
  2. Double click the download and drag the "Hiro Wallet" icon into your "Applications" folder.
  3. Double click the "Hiro Wallet" application to open
  4. Select "Create a new wallet" if you haven't used the Hiro Wallet before.

    If you have a Ledger S device, ensure that it's connected and unlocked with your PIN. Ensure that the "Stacks" application is installed on your Ledger device using the "Ledger instructions" below. Then proceed to select "Use a Ledger wallet". See Ledger instructions.

    If you do not have a Ledger device, select "Create a software wallet".
  5. If you've selected "Create a software wallet", follow the instructions provided to generate and save a 24-word Secret Key.

Follow these instructions to install the Hiro Wallet for Web: 

  1. Install the extension for Chrome, Brave or Firefox
  2. Open extension in your browser
  3. Select "Create a new wallet" if you haven't used the Hiro Wallet before OR,
  4. Navigate to the bottom of the window and select "Sign in with Secret Key"

Where can I find support for the Hiro Wallet?

You can contact our support team at and find us in the Hiro Wallet Discord server.

Note that if you post your support inquiry elsewhere on Discord, we may very well not see it. Please be sure to write us at the email address or Discord server above.

We will never initiate support by contacting you via direct message on any platform. If someone messages you directly offering help or claiming to work for Hiro Wallet, they are almost certainly a scammer.

It is imperative that you never provide your Secret Key or any personally identifiable information to anyone when seeking wallet support. This includes never giving this information to genuine Hiro Wallet staff, either proactively or upon request, since it will never be needed to resolve your problem. Keep this information confidential at all times.

You may see the following Hiro Wallet team members within the community who can assist you:

  • Werner (@Drinknu on Twitter, Werner3141#8516 on Discord, @Werner3141 on Telegram, @314159265359879 on GitHub, werner.btc on Stacks)
  • Mark Hendrickson (@markymark on Twitter, Mark Hendrickson#3708 on Discord, @markmhendrickson on Telegram, @markmhx on GitHub, mark.btc on Stacks)

What operating systems and other requirements are needed for the Hiro Wallet?

Versions are available for MacOS, Windows and Linux. There's no other requirement for getting started with the Hiro Wallet.

Securing the wallet

What is the difference between a Secret Key and a Password in the Hiro Wallet?

Secret Keys control the funds sent to individual Stacks addresses. Secret Keys are either a 24 word secret phrase that users are prompted to record in the process of generating the Hiro Wallet, or Secret Key connected to a hardware wallet device. A full overview and background on Secret Keys is available here. Without a Secret Key, users cannot access the wallet.

A Password within the Hiro Wallet simply acts as another layer of security that is device-specific. Passwords are created by users and they must meet security requirements. Passwords are useful if you use the same device and same browser every time you use the Hiro Wallet, as it saves you from having to re-enter your Secret Key each time you login. Unlike Secret Keys, Passwords are able to be reset and recovered.

To reset the password, simply log out of the Wallet. You can do this by navigating to the three dots in the upper right hand corner of the Wallet and selecting "sign out." When you log back in, you will be automatically prompted to create a new password.

I think I lost my Secret Key to the Hiro Wallet. What should I do?

Secret Keys control the funds sent to individual Stacks addresses. Secret Keys are either a 24 word secret phrase that users were prompted to record in the process of generating the Hiro Wallet, or secret keys connected to a hardware wallet device. A full overview and background on Secret Keys is available here.

In the past, users were able to use either a Trezor or Ledger to set up a Hiro Wallet address as an alternative to generating a new secret key for their STX holdings. As such, they may have 12, 18 or 24 word secret keys that are associated with their hardware wallets that might have been used to set up the Hiro Wallet originally.

Users that think they may have lost their secret key are encouraged to first check any hardware devices for their holdings by connecting to the latest Hiro Wallet for desktop via and trying the steps for Ledger here or Trezor here.

Users are also encouraged to check any safes / password managers or paper files with important information to find their 24 word secret keys if they have never used a hardware wallet.

What are Secret Keys and how do they work?

Secret Keys are 12- or 24-word phrases that authenticate you to products built with the Stacks blockchain such as the Hiro Wallet.

They are otherwise known as "seed phrases", "mnemonic seed phrases", "recovery seeds" or "recovery phrases".

Secret Keys are like strong passwords in that they protect your identity and STX holdings. However, unlike passwords, they can never be recovered – by you or anyone else – if lost. So be sure to always back up a copy in a very secure place that you remember!

See our instructions for securing Secret Keys.

Think twice whenever entering or giving your Secret Key

Always double check that you trust any downloaded software or website that prompts you for your Secret Key before proceeding to enter it!

Never give your Secret Key to anyone online, no matter how trustworthy they seem. Beware especially anyone who claims to need your Secret Key urgently for any purported emergency, financial or otherwise.

It's common for cryptocurrency users to suffer phishing attacks that fool them into providing their Secret Keys to malicious actors. Once your Secret Key is stolen by "bad" websites or software, there are no guarantees that you will get your associated STX or other digital assets back. And you will surely have to generate a new Secret Key for future usage since the original one will have been compromised forever.

12 vs. 24-word Secret Keys

The desktop Hiro Wallet has always generated 24-word Secret Keys for new users, whereas other products such as the Blockstack Browser and web-based Hiro Wallet have generated 12-word Secret Keys for new users.

Generally speaking, if you purchased STX before 2021, your STX holdings are almost certainly associated with a 24-word Secret Key or hardware device such as Ledger or Trezor.

If you have a 12-word Secret Key and never used Trezor or Ledger, you most likely generated it when trying separately to use apps built with Stacks (previously known as "Blockstack") in a web browser. Please ensure that you are entering a separate 24-word Secret Key into the desktop Hiro Wallet to view and manage your balance.

Secret Keys generated by certain Trezor or Ledger devices constitute an exception to this general rule since they may contain 12 or 18 words. You can enter Secret Keys with 12 words directly into the Hiro Wallet to view your holdings if you used a Trezor or Ledger device originally to set them up. Any other lengths such as 18 words must be loaded onto a Ledger device and cannot be entered directly into the Hiro Wallet. However, we recommend you maintain Secret Keys of any length on a Ledger device and connect with that instead to maintain a higher level of security.

You can use 12- or 24-word Secret Keys across both the desktop and web versions of the Hiro Wallet. However, we generally recommend that you generate and use a separate Secret Key for entry in the web browser since it's a less secure environment than desktop software.

Exporting Secret Keys from Trezor or Ledger

Secret Keys originally generated and held on Trezor or Ledger devices can be entered into the Hiro Wallet directly as long as they have 12 or 24 words. However, we highly recommend that you continue using a hardware wallet to connect with the Hiro Wallet to ensure the same level of security to which you're accustomed.

If your Trezor or Ledger device has an additional passphrase, you will need to send your STX to a separate address without a passphrase before entering its Secret Key directly into the Hiro Wallet. There is no way to enter a Secret Key with a passphrase directly into the Hiro Wallet.

Trezor users with passphrases can migrate their underlying Secret Keys and passphrases to Ledger devices for use with the Hiro Wallet. This is the only option for Trezor users with any number of words (e.g. 18) aside from 12 or 24. See our Trezor guidance for details.

Secret Keys must be BIP39 compatible

Secret Keys generated by the Hiro Wallet are BIP39 compatible and in English.

All Secret Keys entered into the Hiro Wallet must also be BIP39 compatible and in English.

Check if your Secret Key is compatible by cross-checking all of its words against the corresponding list by language.

Note that small transcription errors can lead to problems authenticating with your Secret Key. You may want to check in the lists above for possible variants of the words you've transcribed to correct such errors.

Also ensure that your Secret Key conforms to the following upon entry:

  • All lowercase
  • Words with only a spaces in between
  • No preceding numbers or other indication marks
How can I use my Trezor device with the Hiro Wallet?

The Hiro Wallet unfortunately no longer supports authentication and transaction signing with Trezor devices. This is due to how Trezor supports integrations, in which the company's availability and engagement is required to set them up in contrast to Ledger's open model.

If you've used a Trezor device with a previous version of the wallet, you have two options going forward:

  1. Purchase a Ledger device and load the 12-, 18- or 24-word recovery phrase you saved when originally setting up our Trezor device into your Ledger device. See "Restore from recovery phrase" from Ledger.
  2. Enter the 12- or 24-word recovery phrase you saved when originally setting up our Trezor device directly into the wallet upon selecting "Sign In" and viewing a prompt for your "Secret Key". This option does not work for 18-word recovery phrases.

Warning: We highly advise that you continue using the Hiro Wallet with a hardware device, even if you can no longer use your Trezor device, to ensure the same level of security to which you're accustomed. As such, option #1 above is recommended over option #2 despite the extra cost and time required.

If you have a Trezor device with a passphrase, you will need to migrate both your recovery phrase and passphrase to a new Ledger device for use with the Hiro Wallet going forward. There is no way to enter the combined recovery phrase and passphrase directly into the Hiro Wallet without a hardware device.

See "Advanced passphrase security" from Ledger for details.

We hope to support Trezor again some day soon, but there is currently no timing expectation available. We will update the community if and when this work gets underway.

How should I secure my Secret Key for the Hiro Wallet?

It is important that you understand how to keep good security for your Hiro Wallet software.

Your wallet Secret Key or seed phrase is a cryptographic key with which you need to use the strictest security available to you.

The Cryptocurrency Security Standard publishes guidelines for key storage. These guidelines are presented from least (Level I) to most secure (Level III). We recommend you store your keys with at least Level II security. This level states that you should:

  • Back up each of your cryptographic keys.
  • Store the backup in a location separate location from where you use a key. For example, if you use the key at the office, you can store the key are your office.
  • Protect your backup from access by unauthorized parties. For example, a safe, safe deposit box, or lock box are good examples of protecting access to a backup.
  • Employ some form of tamper mechanism that allows your to determine when if you key was accessed by someone else. For example, you could use a sealed paper envelopes with handwritten signatures over the seal as a tamper mechanism.

You are responsible for recalling and protecting your keys. Hiro does not store your seed phrase and cannot help you recover it. If you lose your seed phrase, you lose the key to your STX tokens, which can be a very costly mistake.

How can I use my Ledger device with the Hiro Wallet?

What is Ledger?

Founded in 2014, Ledger allows users to buy, exchange and grow their crypto securely with a Ledger hardware wallet, combined with the Ledger Live app. It’s never been easier to keep crypto safe and accessible.

How can I use my Ledger device with the Hiro Wallet?

The Stacks app for Ledger empowers users to connect their Ledger devices to the Hiro Wallet (MacOS, Windows and Linux) for securely managing their Stacks (STX) holdings and participating in Stacking.

The Stacks app is available in Ledger Live. You'll need to install it there before proceeding to connect your Ledger Nano S or X device to the Hiro Wallet for authentication.

  1. Download and open Ledger Live
  2. Connect your Ledger device
  3. Upgrade your firmware for Ledger Nano S to version 2.1.0 or Nano X to version 2.0.2 or greater.
  4. Go to "Manager" on the left-hand side of Ledger Live
  5. Connect and enter your PIN on your Ledger device
  6. Confirm "Allow Ledger manager" on device
  7. Search "Stacks" and select "Install" - NOTE: please ensure your Ledger device has sufficient space to download the Stacks app.
  8. Close Ledger Live App
  9. Return to Hiro Wallet and proceed with authentication


  • Press both top buttons on your Ledger device simultaneously to proceed whenever it shows "Pending Ledger review" on the screen.
  • Ledger Blue is not supported by the Hiro Wallet. You'll need to transfer your recovery phrase to a separate Nano S or X device.

Verify receive address on Ledger device

  1. Open the Hiro Wallet
  2. Select "I already have a wallet"
  3. Select "Continue with Ledger"
  4. Connect your Ledger and enter its PIN on the device
  5. Open the Stacks app on your Ledger device
  6. Select "Continue" to view the receive address on your Ledger device

View your balance with Ledger device

  1. Open the Hiro Wallet
  2. Select "I already have a wallet"
  3. Select "Continue with Ledger"
  4. Connect your Ledger and enter its PIN on the device
  5. Open the Stacks app on your Ledger device
  6. Select "Continue" to view the receive address on your Ledger device
  7. Select "Approve" on your Ledger device
  8. Your total balance is shown at the top of the window under "Total balance"

Receive STX with Ledger device

  1. Open the Hiro Wallet
  2. Select "I already have a wallet"
  3. Select "Continue with Ledger"
  4. Connect your Ledger and enter its PIN on the device
  5. Open the Stacks app on your Ledger device
  6. Select "Continue" to view the receive address on your Ledger device
  7. Select "Approve" on your Ledger device to proceed with using the Hiro Wallet
  8. Select "Receive" at the top of the window under your total balance
  9. Select "Request Ledger device"
  10. Verify that the address shown in the Hiro Wallet matches the one  shown on your Ledger device and select "Approve"
  11. Copy the address shown in the Hiro Wallet to receive STX from it

Send STX with Ledger device

  1. Open the Hiro Wallet
  2. Select "I already have a wallet"
  3. Select "Continue with Ledger"
  4. Connect your Ledger and enter its PIN on the device
  5. Open the Stacks app on your Ledger device
  6. Select "Continue" to view the receive address on your Ledger device
  7. Select "Approve" on your Ledger device
  8. Select "Send" at the top of the window under your total balance
  9. Enter the address to which you'd like to send STX, the amount of STX and an optional memo describing the transfer
  10. Select "Preview" then "Sign transaction and send" to initiate the transaction.
  11. Select "Sign transaction" and verify the address and all other relevant transaction details as displayed on your Ledger device.
  12. Select "Approve" on your Ledger device to confirm and broadcast the transaction.


Please email us at or join the Stacks Discord if you have any issues while using your Ledger device with the Hiro Wallet.


How do transaction fees work with the Hiro Wallet?

The Hiro Wallet browser extension allows users to set any amount of STX for paying fees upon the submission of transactions to the Stacks blockchain.

The amount appropriate for incentivizing miners on the network to confirm transactions fluctuates continually as overall network usage and conditions change.

As such, it's important you choose an amount that optimizes the chances that your transaction will confirm on the network, balancing confirmation probability against costs.

The wallet suggests three fee amounts by default to help users determine how much to spend:

  • Low
  • Standard (selected by default)
  • High
Fee setting while signing a transaction with the Hiro Wallet browser extension

These fee amounts are provided to the Hiro Wallet by the Stacks Blockchain API instance configured under "Change Network" in the settings menu.

The API produces these values using statistical analysis of the last confirmed anchor block seen on the Stacks blockchain by calculating the distribution of fees paid for successfully confirmed transactions in that block.

The "Low" value corresponds to a lower percentile (~10%) of fees paid for successful transactions whereas the "High" value corresponds to a higher percentile (~90%) of fees. The "Standard" value corresponds to the 50th percentile.

While network conditions may have changed significantly since the last anchor block, these value estimates provide users with a historical snapshot that can guide their decision making for transactions they want included in the next block.

Generally speaking, you may want to leave the fees as "Standard" if you don't have a particularly strong or weak preference for how reliably you need your transaction to confirm in the next anchor block.

If you have a particularly strong need for your transaction to confirm in the next anchor block, you may want to select "High" or set a custom fee that's even greater than the "High" value.

If you want to save on fees and have a weak need for your transaction confirm in the next anchor block, you may want to select "Low".

Important: The choice of any amount of fees (however high) does not guarantee confirmation of your transaction in any block.

Additionally, if your transaction doesn't get confirmed in the next anchor block, it may very well get confirmed in a subsequent one. Network conditions may change substantially over the course of the coming blocks in ways that are not anticipated by these suggested values.

You can later use the "Increase fee" feature of the Hiro Wallet to increase the fees of a previously broadcasted transaction, should you set a value that's too low initially.

How do I edit the fee and nonce values for transactions?

Note: You must have v2.16.0 or greater installed to access the functionality described in this FAQ. If you've installed the extension via the Chrome or Firefox stores but don't see this version yet, please wait until it updates automatically upon approval. Alternatively, you can install the latest version from source.


Users can edit the fee and nonce values for any transactions they sign and broadcast to the Stacks blockchain with the Hiro Wallet.

To edit these values, select "Settings" at the bottom of the transaction signing modal:

You'll then see the following dialog:


The dialog displays a "Fee" input that allows you to modify the default fee value for your transaction.

While the default value is often sufficient for transactions to confirm quickly on the network, sometimes the value needs to be increased for them to compete against other transactions, especially during periods of unusually high network congestion.

To modify the fee value, simply enter an alternative value into the field or select one of the multiplier options (2x, 5x or 10x) and select "Apply".

Fees can be modified this way for all newly broadcasted transactions as well as for any existing transactions that are pending confirmation on the network.

To increase the fees for an existing transaction that remains pending, simply hover over the transaction listed under the "Activity" tab on the home screen of the wallet and select "Increase fee":

This will display a modal that allows you to modify the fee in a similar fashion as for a new transaction. Simply modify the fee and select "Submit" to re-broadcast the transaction to the network with the new fee value:

Note that the calculations used for setting default fees automatically were modified in September 2021 in a way that increased them substantially as compared to their previous values. This change was intended to help ensure that transactions confirm reliably despite increased network usage trends. Users can always decide to adjust these default fees upwards or downwards based on their preferences.


The wallet submits an incremental integer value (called a "nonce") with every transaction you broadcast to the network from a given account. This integer serves as an identification number for your transaction so the network knows how to recognize and process it properly as opposed to others you may have broadcasted as well.

The wallet usually keeps track of which nonce value to include for your transactions, automatically incrementing by one each time since the network will only confirm a transaction that includes a nonce value that's one more than the last recognized for a given account.

However, under certain rare conditions, the wallet may be unable to increment the nonce accurately and your transaction will fail to confirm on the network. In these circumstances, you can select "Edit nonce" from the bottom area of the above "Advanced settings" modal during transaction signing, and a field will appear to edit the nonce manually:

To determine the correct nonce to use, visit the Stacks Explorer and search for your account's address. You will then see the nonce value listed near the top of the address page:

Enter the exact value you see here in the wallet's advanced settings field, replacing whatever value is shown there by default and selecting "Apply".

Important: Do not edit the nonce unless confident about the right value to use since any inaccurate value will cause your transaction to remain pending until it eventually fails.

Why is my Stacks transaction pending?

While there are no known issues impacting correct, well-formed transactions, some transactions can be pending for a long time. Pending transactions will be discarded after 256 blocks or ~48 hours — a transaction that is not confirmed, by definition, has no impact on your assets and can be re-sent by the original sender.

More details on transactions in mempool can be found in this forum post on transactions in mempool: best-practices and known issues.

What versions of the Hiro Wallet can be used for transacting with STX?

Following the launch of Stacks 2.0 on Jan. 14th 2021, users must use the new version of the Hiro Wallet to transact with Stacks. The Hiro Wallet v3 and older can no longer be used for sending or receiving STX tokens and is effectively “read only.”

In order to access and transact with your STX, login to the new Hiro Wallet available at by selecting “I already have a wallet” after downloading, and enter your secret key associated with your Stacks holdings. Your secret key is either a 24 word secret phrase or a hardware device such as Trezor or Ledger.

How can I withdraw the BTC I've deposited into the old Stacks Wallet?

Important note: These instructions involve the installation of a third-party wallet that is not created or supported by Hiro PBC. We make no guarantees as to its security or functionality. Please proceed at your own risk.

The third-party Electrum wallet can be used for withdrawing your BTC as previously deposited into the Stacks Wallet. The instructions below must be followed using the same Secret Key / seed phrase or hardware device as used to set up the Stacks Wallet originally for managing your STX and depositing BTC from elsewhere.

Please double-check that you have the same phrase or device on hand, then follow these instructions very carefully:

  1. Download and open the Electrum wallet for your operating system from
  2. If you have a hardware device, connect your Ledger or Trezor device via USB and unlock it with your PIN.

    If you have Ledger specifically:

    Open the Bitcoin app on the device. If you don’t already have the Bitcoin app, download it from Ledger Live before proceeding.

    Once the app is installed, close Ledger Live before proceeding. Otherwise Electrum won’t be able to communicate with your Ledger device.

    If you’re on Linux with either Ledger or Trezor, you may need to configure your undev rules before proceeding.
  1. Choose “Next” on the first “Install Wizard” screen that appears

  1. Select “Standard wallet” and “Next”

  1. If you have a Ledger or Trezor device select “Use a hardware device” and “Next”. Otherwise, select “I already have a seed”

  1. Select “Next” when viewing your Ledger or Trezor device listed on the “Hardware Keystore” screen:
  • Or alternatively without a hardware device, enter your seed phrase:

Then select “Options” and check “BIP39 seed” before continuing to select “OK” and “Next”:

  1. Select legacy (p2pkh) for the type of wallet then replace the derivation path value with m/44'/5757'/0' and select “Next”.

    You must select the “legacy” type before replacing the derivation path value. Otherwise the derivation path value will revert to an incorrect default and your BTC won’t appear in the wallet later on.

    Make sure that this value is entered exactly as shown, with an apostrophe at the very end and without any spaces (between letters or at the end).

  1. Select “Next” on the wallet file encryption screen

  1. You should see your balance listed at the bottom of the app’s window.

    Select the “Send” tab on top, paste the recipient BTC address for where you want to send your BTC into “Pay to”, select “Max” for the amount, and confirm by selecting “Pay…”:

You’re all set! All of your BTC has been withdrawn from the Stacks Wallet using Electrum.


What are the various methods to participate in Stacking?

Users have a few paths forward to proceed with Stacking. Recommendations for smaller Stacks holders can be found in this blog post covering Stacking Observations and Reminders for Individual Stackers at or Near the Minimum.

The three options for Stacking include:

  1. Direct Stacking
  2. Non-custodial delegated Stacking
  3. Custodial delegated Stacking (e.g. OKCoin)

Direct Stacking can be done through the Hiro Wallet for desktop or via direct contract call using Clarity. In order to participate, users must meet the dynamic minimum threshold of Stacks from one address. The minimum is currently 80,000 STX, and it may increase. Stacking via the wallet directly gives users the most control over their stacking experience, especially as related to how many STX they’d like to stack. This can be a better option for those who have larger STX holdings and can safely lock above current Stacking thresholds, given the dynamic nature of stacking threshold minimums. The steps to participate in Stacking directly are listed here:

Non-custodial delegating Stacking can also be done through the Hiro Wallet. A full overview of non-custodial delegated stacking can be found in this link to a forum post covering the delegation feature overview.  This feature is especially useful for STX holders with fewer than the dynamically set minimum (currently 80,000 STX) since it empowers them to earn BTC from Stacking with any number of STX on hand. It also keeps STX safe at all times in the desktop Hiro Wallet, especially when used in conjunction with a Ledger device.

Your STX will never leave your wallet or end up in the possession of such third-party services when participating in Stacking directly or through Stacking delegation. In Stacking directly you'll have to sign a stacking transaction indicating your participation. In delegated stacking you’ll simply broadcast a transaction that permits the delegation service to commit your STX to Stacking for up to 12 cycles (or about 6 months).

As with all forms of Stacking, STX are locked up after committed by the delegation service until the final cycle is complete. This means simply that the STX cannot be transferred anywhere or used for other purposes temporarily. However, STX holders can choose to revoke delegation at any time and this will prevent such delegation services from subsequently committing their STX to more cycles.

Custodial delegated stacking provides users an option to stack via a provider that maintains custody of their STX, offsetting some responsibility for holders in maintaining and safe guarding the Secret Keys. Stacking via a custodial provider (such as OKCoin) can provide the most “user friendly” approach in the user experience overall. As a tradeoff, this means users have somewhat less control over their funds as they are relying on a third party for custody of those funds.

How can I lock additional STX for Stacking?

Follow these instructions if you've already locked STX for Stacking in the Hiro Wallet but wish to increase the amount of STX locked for improved chances to receive BTC rewards. Currently, the Hiro Wallet requires locking STX in increments of 90k or more.

Note: These instructions require you set up STX holdings across two separate Ledger devices or software wallets. Please proceed only if you feel comfortable dealing with multiple devices or Secret Keys. We highly recommend you do so with two Ledger devices and not two software wallets, for security purposes.

  1. Ensure that you've secured the Ledger device or Secret Key for your existing wallet, as well as possess the BTC address you've already used to initiate Stacking.
  2. Go to "Settings" in the Hiro Wallet and select "Reset wallet".
  3. Accept the "Terms of Service".
  4. Choose "Create a new wallet" and proceed with either your second Ledger device or new software wallet, securing your new recovery phrase or Secret Key in the process.
  5. Choose "Receive" once you've finished setup and copy the address displayed for your new wallet somewhere for easy access outside the Hiro Wallet (e.g. notes).
  6. Go to "Settings" in the Hiro Wallet and select "Reset wallet".
  7. Accept the "Terms of Service".
  8. Choose "I already have a wallet" and proceed with your first Ledger device or existing software wallet.
  9. Choose "Send", paste the address for your new wallet, and enter the additional amount of STX you'd like to lock for Stacking plus 0.0002 STX to cover fees.
  10. Confirm the transaction with your Ledger device or password.
  11. Go to "Settings" in the Hiro Wallet and select "Reset wallet".
  12. Accept the "Terms of Service".
  13. Choose "I already have a wallet" and proceed with your second Ledger device or new software wallet.
  14. Wait for the incoming transfer to confirm.
  15. Select "Get started" on the right-hand side to view the Stacking form.
  16. Enter the additional amount of STX you'd like to lock for Stacking, the same or greater number of cycles as you previously set for Stacking, and the same BTC address you previously used to initiate Stacking.
  17. Submit the Stacking form and confirm with your Ledger device or password.

You will now participate in Stacking with the total STX locked by both of your wallets for any given cycle in which they are both still locked.

Alternatively, you can simply wait until your STX unlock for your single wallet after the total number of cycles in which they've been locked transpire. You'll then be able to reinitiate Stacking with a new total using the single wallet instead of creating a new one for adding STX before those cycles transpire.

What’s the minimum amount of Stacks needed by a user to participate in Stacking?

The minimum amount needed to participate in Stacking directly is dynamic and based on both the total supply of STX and the total amount of current participation. It is be reported by Stacks blockchain nodes at path /v2/pox with the min_amount_ustx property and denominated in microstacks (μstx).

The value will never fall below 50,000 STX.

In various use cases, users can lock up their tokens but might not be eligible for reward slots (multipliers of 90K currently). For instance:

  • Stacking a fraction of the reward slot threshold would lock up more tokens than required for the maximum number of eligible reward slots. You can lock up 200K STX but would qualify for 2 reward slots that require only 180K tokens. In that case, 20K would be locked without additional reward allocations
  • Stacking less than the minimum threshold. You could use the Stacking contract directly and lock up tokens if you commit over 50K. However, only at the minimum threshold, currently 90k, would you be assigned a reward slot. If you locked up tokens for the maximum cycle amount (12), you would have tokens locked for ~6 months without qualifying for rewards.

If you are Stacking near the minimum, you should review these options.

Can I participate in Stacking with any STX that remained locked against a purchase-based unlocking schedule?

No. STX holdings that have yet to unlock as part of a purchase-based unlocking schedule cannot be used for Stacking until they unlock.

How do I participate in Stacking with the Hiro Wallet?

To participate in Stacking directly via the Hiro Wallet, you'll need at least the minimum number of STX in your Hiro Wallet balance. Stacking is otherwise available through one of our partners at

A few things to note when Stacking directly:
1) Stacking directly requires meeting a dynamic minimum threshold of STX that changes based on participation. The amount of STX required to participate has been steadily increasing since Stacking was initiated on mainnet.

2) Stacking is irreversible and once STX tokens are locked, they will not unlock even if the dynamic minimum increases and the STX are no longer eligible for rewards.

3) There is a "cool down" cycle between Stacking cycles. After your chosen Stacking duration, you’ll have to wait one cycle before you can stack from the same address again, regardless of how many cycles you stacked

We recommend most users pool their STX. See more recommendations here:

If you've decided to Stack directly through the Hiro Wallet, see the steps for participation below.

Once you've authenticated into the Hiro Wallet with either your Secret Key or hardware device, you'll see an option on the right-hand side of the home screen to "Get started" with Stacking:

Selecting this option will take you to the "Start earning Bitcoin" screen:

On this screen you can see when the next Stacking cycle will begin.

First, determine how much out of your total STX balance you'd like to commit for Stacking:

Then determine how many cycles you would like to commit this indicated amount of STX:

The estimated total duration of those cycles will be shown on the right-hand side of the screen so you know how long your committed STX will remained locked up before getting automatically released again for other purposes.

Enter the Bitcoin address to which you'd like receive rewards from Stacking:

Finally, select "Confirm and lock" to initiate Stacking with the amount, duration and Bitcoin address you've entered.

You will be  prompted to enter your password, if you are using the Stacks Wallet with a Secret Key:

Otherwise, if you are using the Hiro Wallet with a hardware device, you will be prompted to confirm the transaction with it:

You should now see a pending transaction on the home screen for "Initiating Stacking". Your indicated amount will become locked on the Stacks blockchain once this transaction is confirmed.

You can follow the Stacking process on the right-hand side of the home screen as well as see how much BTC you have earned as a result:

Other FAQs

How do I buy STX from an exchange?

Getting Started

Exchanges are online platforms on which individuals and institutions can buy, sell and hold cryptocurrencies.

There are hundreds of cryptocurrency exchanges out there and choosing the right one for you requires considering a number of factors such as reliability, supported currencies, security and more. Most major exchanges are overseen by KYC (Know Your Customer) and AML (Anti-Money Laundering) requirements.

Below is an outline of how to get started with an exchange to buy STX tokens for deposit into your Hiro Wallet.

Step One: Create an account

Navigate to the official website of the exchange you wish to use and select the option to Sign Up.

You will be asked to enter a valid email address and to create a password of your choosing. A verification code will be sent to the email address you provided; please enter the code into your browser window as quickly as possible.

Many exchanges will recommend setting up 2-Factor Authentication; you can do so with your personal cell phone number or an authenticator app, which is the most secure option. Finally, you’ll be asked to verify your identify via a series of KYC questions. Verification may take a few hours, possible up to a day.

Please ensure you enter correct and up-to-date information that matches your physical documents to help the verification process go smoothly.

Step Two: Buy STX

Once your account has been verified, you will be able to buy, sell, withdraw and deposit cryptocurrencies directly from your dashboard of the exchange.

To buy STX tokens, please ensure you are first using an exchange that supports the token. Select “Buy” and input the amount of money (USD or other) you’d like to exchange for STX.

The exchange will automatically convert the dollar amount into the amount of tokens you’ll receive, including any transaction fees. Depending on the exchange, you can pay for the transaction with a credit or debit card, PayPal, or directly from your bank.

Step Three: Send STX to Hiro Wallet

Now that you own STX tokens that are held in your exchange account, you can easily move them into your Hiro Wallet.

To get started, make sure you have your Hiro Wallet Address handy. You can do this by opening the Wallet’s web extension and selecting “copy address” near the top of the window.

Back in the exchange, from your account’s dashboard, select either “Send” or “Withdraw.” From there, input the amount of STX you’d like to withdraw from the exchange and send to the Hiro Wallet. Paste your Hiro Wallet address into the “To” line.

Important: You do not need to include a memo to send funds from an exchange to your wallet.

However, you always need to include a memo when you send from the wallet back to an exchange. The exchange will show you all fees you may incur from the transaction.

Please take a moment to confirm that all information is correct before you send. Once sent, you can expect to receive the STX in your Hiro Wallet within 15-30 minutes depending on network congestion.

What is the status of my Stacks ID?

Usernames created on Stacks 1.0 can be used in the new web wallet for testing only on the Hiro Wallet for web. Usernames from Stacks 1.0 will show up in the web wallet, but any usernames registered on stacks 2.0 are not yet visible. All registered Stacks IDs were automatically renewed at the launch of Stacks 2.0 for one year.

Usernames can also be used with the older and Blockstack Browser, but only until they sunset on July 1, 2021

What BTC address formats can I use for Stacking?

Stacks holders provide the Stacks blockchain with a Bitcoin (BTC) address when participating in Stacking.

BTC is transferred directly to this address via the Proof of Transfer consensus mechanism when the committed STX qualifies for rewards.

You must provide a BTC address in one of two formats:

  • Legacy (P2PKH), which starts with "1". (e.g. "17VZNX1SN5NtKa8UQFxwQbFeFc3iqRYhem")

If you enter a different format while initiating Stacking, you may see the error "only pubkey hash and script hash support".

The "Native Segwit" format (which starts with “bc1”), for example, is not supported.

What if I have an older version of the Hiro Wallet?

If you used an older version of the wallet (ex: Blockstack Wallet), you will need to begin using the latest Hiro Wallet to transact with your holdings again. You do not need to create a new wallet!

To set up the newest version, all you need to do is download the Hiro Wallet, select "Sign in with Secret Key" and enter your 24 word Secret Key from your original Blockstack Wallet. If you used a hardware device to set up your Blockstack Wallet, please follow these instructions to now access your Hiro wallet.

How should I store large holdings of STX?

Large STX holders have the following options for holding STX: 

  • Use a Ledger hardware wallet 
  • Use a Bitcoin multisig set up 
  • Use a custodial service

Ledger wallets add a level of security by keeping Secret Keys associated with your STX balance offline, but put the onus on end users to secure their Ledger devices and recovery keys. See the Ledger for Hiro Wallet instructions for more info. 

Some users may want to use a multisig setup. Multisig provides higher assurances that your balance cannot be hacked through adding more signers to a transaction. Multisig support for STX holdings is only available via Bitcoin multisig setup at the moment. As such, there is a higher level of friction for end users to engage with Stacks in this manner. Interested parties can see more information on GitHub

Lastly, Custodial services have different techniques for storing crypto assets. They do the work of storing assets in exchange for fees, and are a potential point of centralized weakness. Custodial techniques vary according to factors such as the liquidity level you want to maintain or the security you would like. If you decide to go the custodial route, consider your needs, the firm’s reputation, fees, and so forth. Custodian options for STX holders includeCoinbase Custody and BitGo.  

Of course, like any responsible asset holder, you should do your own research and select a storage method for your STX that meets your needs.

Where can I find the latest version of the Hiro Wallet for testnet?

You can find the latest version of the Hiro Wallet for testing against the Stacks Testnet under the "Releases" tab of the blockstack/stacks-wallet repository on GitHub.

Expand the "Assets" section for the latest release and select the version with "testnet" in the filename that matches your operating system (MacOS, Windows or Linux).

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